Michel Besserve,Rémy Sun,Dominik Janzing,Bernhard Schölkopf
Abstract URL: https://arxiv.org/abs/2004.00184v1
Deep generative models reproduce complex empirical data but cannot extrapolate to novel environments. An intuitive idea to promote extrapolation capabilities is to enforce the architecture to have the modular structure of a causal graphical model, where one can intervene on each module independently of the others in the graph. We develop a framework to formalize this intuition, using the principle of Independent Causal Mechanisms, and show how over-parameterization of generative neural networks can hinder extrapolation capabilities. Our experiments on the generation of human faces shows successive layers of a generator architecture implement independent mechanisms to some extent, allowing meaningful extrapolations. Finally, we illustrate that independence of mechanisms may be enforced during training to improve extrapolation.